When breeders use the laparoscopic AI technique, it allows for the bypassing of the cervical barrier which results in a decreased amount of sperm needed. The sperm is better protected and preserved and allows for sperm dilution as well. This technique requires a single planned insemination and synchronising of oestrus. It requires a minor surgical procedure using a fibre-optic telescope which passes through the ewe’s abdominal wall. In this technique, frozen sperm that has been thawed is most often used, since this is carefully timed and allows for perfect control over the timing of the procedure. The semen can also be freshly collected from the ram on a particular day. With the ram capable of ejaculating between three and four times per day, the AI potential is high, since one ejaculate can inseminate close to a 100 ewes.
Using a vaginal AI technique does not require any special tools, the ewe is not sedated, and it does not need the ewe to be severely restrained, and it is rapid too. The technician or handler will be required to be calm, to keep the ewe relaxed even though she will be restrained to limited movement. To access the vagina, the ewe’s hindquarters must be at a convenient height and be convenient for the handler and comfortable for the ewe. The vulva region must be cleaned and using suitable illumination plus the aid of a speculum, the cervix must be located. The insemination must be done as deeply as possible and using a very thin, long insemination tube that you attach to a syringe can be used, or semi-automatic insemination devices are available to use. The use of thawed frozen sperm in vaginal AI appears to be less successful when compared to fresh diluted semen. This method could cause injury in maiden ewes, and therefore, laparoscopic AI is safer.